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Summary of historical attacks using chemical or biological weapons

Photo Credit: Image by Danielle Tunstall from Pixabay

Summary of historical attacks using chemical or biological weapons

compiled by Wm. Robert Johnston
last updated 5 December 2017

The following table summarizes known historical instances of the use of chemical or biological weapons, in reverse chronological order. The listing is limited to events after 1900 (while there were some earlier instances of chemical/biological warfare, these instances were generally of very limited effectiveness). Note that some incidents are disputed, and casualty figures in some cases are very uncertain. Events included:

  • use in warfare: multiple attacks within a war are grouped together.
  • use by terrorists: includes attacks with larger numbers of casualties.
  • other: several criminal incidents and accidental chemical releases are included because of their significance.

Sources are provided following the table at the link below

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http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/terrorism/chembioattacks.html

Manawatu River – pollution concerns date back to 1890

A revisit of the Manawatu’s pollution. And it’s not getting any better! Considering we can now only swim in 40% of our rivers. The article is from 2009, from an interesting NZ site that gives us some insight into historical pollution of our once clean green paradise. Not pretty.  (Note: the link to the TV coverage is outdated so the content is no longer there).

envirohistory NZ

In light of recent media coverage concerning the polluted state of the Manawatu River [click here to view TV news coverage], it is insightful to look back at the river’s history. Even a casual perusal of Papers Past indicates that the vexed issue of pollution of the Manawatu is certainly not a new one.

An article in the Manawatu Herald of 30 May 1890 reports on a meeting held by representatives of local bodies alarmed about Palmerston North Borough Council’s decision to let a contract to discharge the town’s sewerage  into the river. The following are two excerpts:

“[Foxton Mayor] Mr Gower said : The business for this meeting to discuss is the fact that the Borough Council of Palmerston N. have let a contract to convey the sewage of that town into the Manawatu river. It will be for us to consider what steps shall be taken to…

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