This is because children have thinner skulls, smaller heads, and a higher water content in their brain and tissues.
Vulnerability to the long-term effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) is compounded in children and fetuses because they experience rapid brain and immune system development at this age.
Research on Children’s Vulnerability to Cell Phone Radio-frequency Radiation
Children have smaller heads than adults. Cell phones and wireless radiation can go deeper into their brains because children have a shorter distance from their skull to their brain center. Government regulations were based on a 220-pound man’s head, not a child’s head. Our skulls actually slow down wireless as it moves into our brain. The thicker the skull, the more roadblocks to the wireless radiation moving forward. Since children have much thinner skulls than adults, they have less protection. Research shows that children can absorb up to ten times the radiation in the bone marrow of their skulls than adults.
“Children are not little adults and are disproportionately impacted by all environmental exposures, including cell phone radiation. Current FCC standards do not account for the unique vulnerability and use patterns specific to pregnant women and children. It is essential that any new standard for cell phones or other wireless devices be based on protecting the youngest and most vulnerable populations to ensure they are safeguarded throughout their lifetimes.”- American Academy of Pediatrics
American Academy of Pediatrics Official Letters
- 2013 AAP Letter to FCC Commissioner Mignon Clyburn and FDA Commissioner Margaret Hamburg calling for a review of RF guidelines
- 2012 AAP Letter to US Representative Dennis Kucinich in Support of the Cell Phone Right to Know Act
- 2012 AAP Letter to the FCC Chairman calling for the FCC to open up a review of RF guidelines
Fernández, C., de Salles, A., Sears, M., Morris, R., & Davis, D. (2018). Absorption of wireless radiation in the child versus adult brain and eye from cell phone conversation or virtual reality. Environmental Research, 167, 694-699. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.05.013
Siervo B, Morelli MS, Landini L, Hartwig V. Numerical evaluation of human exposure to WiMax patch antenna in tablet or laptop. Bioelectromagnetics. 2018;39(5):414-422. doi:10.1002/bem.22128
P. Gandhi, “Yes the Children Are More Exposed to Radiofrequency Energy From Mobile Telephones Than Adults,” in IEEE Access, vol. 3, pp. 985-988, 2015, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2015.2438782.
Gandhi, O., Morgan, L., de Salles, A., Han, Y., Herberman, R., & Davis, D. (2011). Exposure Limits: The underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children. Electromagnetic Biology And Medicine, 31(1), 34-51. https://doi.org/10.3109/15368378.2011.622827
Ferreira, J., & Almeida de Salles, A. (2015). Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head of Tablet users. The 7Th IEEE Latin-American Conference On Communications (Latincom 2015), 1538, 5-9. Retrieved 3 June 2020, from http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1538/paper-02.pdf.
E. Fernández-Rodríguez, A. A. A. De Salles and D. L. Davis, “Dosimetric Simulations of Brain Absorption of Mobile Phone Radiation–The Relationship Between psSAR and Age,” in IEEE Access, vol. 3, pp. 2425-2430, 2015, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2015.2502900.
Gultekin, D., & Moeller, L. (2012). NMR imaging of cell phone radiation absorption in brain tissue. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, 110(1), 58-63. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1205598109
Cabot E, Christ A, Bühlmann B, et al. Quantification of RF-exposure of the fetus using anatomical CAD-models in three different gestational stages. Health Phys. 2014;107(5):369-381. doi:10.1097/HP.0000000000000129
Gadi Lissak. “Adverse physiological and psychological effects of screen time on children and adolescents: Literature review and case study.” Environmental Research, Volume 164, 2018, Pages 149-157, ISSN 0013-9351.
Byun, Y., Ha, M., Kwon, H., Hong, Y., Leem, J., & Sakong, J. et al. (2013). Mobile Phone Use, Blood Lead Levels, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children: A Longitudinal Study. Plos ONE, 8(3), e59742. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059742
Foerster, M., Thielens, A., Joseph, W., Eeftens, M., & Röösli, M. (2018). A Prospective Cohort Study of Adolescents’ Memory Performance and Individual Brain Dose of Microwave Radiation from Wireless Communication. Environmental Health Perspectives, 126(7), 077007. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp2427
Mohammed B, Jin J, Abbosh A, Bialkowski K, Manoufali M, Crozier S. Evaluation of children exposure to electromagnetic fields of mobile phones using age-specific head models with age-dependent dielectric properties. IEEE Access. PP(99). 2017
Sangün Ö, Dündar B, Çömlekçi S, Büyükgebiz A. The effects of electromagnetic field on the endocrine system in children and adolescents. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2015 Dec;13(2):531-45.
Aldad, T., Gan, G., Gao, X., & Taylor, H. (2012). Fetal Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure From 800-1900 Mhz-Rated Cellular Telephones Affects Neurodevelopment and Behavior in Mice. Scientific Reports, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/srep00312
Li, D., Chen, H., Ferber, J., Hirst, A., & Odouli, R. (2020). Association between maternal exposure to magnetic field nonionizing radiation during pregnancy and risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in offspring in a longitudinal birth cohort. JAMA Network Open, 3(3), e201417. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.1417
Miller, A., Sears, M., Morgan, L., Davis, D., Hardell, L., Oremus, M., & Soskolne, C. (2019). Risks to health and well-being from radio-frequency radiation emitted by cell phones and other wireless devices. Frontiers In Public Health, 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2019.00223
Hardell, L. (2017). Effects of mobile phones on children’s and adolescents’ health: A commentary. Child Development, 89(1), 137-140. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12831
Clegg, F., Sears, M., Friesen, M., Scarato, T., Metzinger, R., & Russell, C. et al. (2020). Building science and radiofrequency radiation: What makes smart and healthy buildings. Building And Environment, 176, 106324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.106324
Zarei, S., S., Mortazavi, S., Mehdizadeh, A., Jalalipour, M., Borzou, S., & Taeb, S. et al. (2015). A Challenging Issue in the Etiology of Speech Problems: The Effect of Maternal Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields on Speech Problems in the Offspring. Journal Of Biomedical Physics & Engineering, 5(3), 151-154. Retrieved 2 June 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4576876/.
Markovà, E., Malmgren, L., & Belyaev, I. (2010). Microwaves from mobile phones inhibit 53bp1 focus formation in human stem cells more strongly than in differentiated cells: Possible mechanistic link to cancer risk. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(3), 394-399. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0900781
Sudan, M., Birks, L., Aurrekoetxea, J., Ferrero, A., Gallastegi, M., & Guxens, M. et al. (2018). Maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and child cognition at age 5 years in 3 birth cohorts. Environment International, 120, 155-162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.07.043
Roda, C., & Perry, S. (2014). Mobile phone infrastructure regulation in Europe: Scientific challenges and human rights protection. Environmental Science & Policy, 37, 204-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2013.09.009
Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, Olsen J. Cell phone use and behavioural problems in young children. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012;66(6):524-529. doi:10.1136/jech.2010.115402
Herbert, M.R. and Sage, C. “Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a Pathophysiological Link”. Part II: Pathophysiology, 2013 Jun;20(3):211-34. Epub Pubmed abstract for Part II.
Papageorgio, C.C., et al. “Effects of Wi-Fi signals on the p300 component of event-related potentials during an auditory hayling task.” Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, vol. 10, no. 2, 2011, pp. 189-202.
IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Non-ionizing radiation, Part 2: Radiofrequency Electromagnetic fields. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, vol. 102, 2013.